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Tables of Climatological Normals (1981–2010)

The following tables indicate the monthly/annual climate normals for major observatories in Japan, calculated by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) according to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Technical Regulation based on observed data from 1981 to 2010.
The climate normals are the averages or totals of observed data over the consecutive period of 30 years and updated every decade.

Mean temperature ( °C )

Station Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual
Sapporo -3.6 -3.1 0.6 7.1 12.4 16.7 20.5 22.3 18.1 11.8 4.9 -0.9 8.9
Sendai 1.6 2.0 4.9 10.3 15.0 18.5 22.2 24.2 20.7 15.2 9.4 4.5 12.4
Niigata 2.8 2.9 5.8 11.5 16.5 20.7 24.5 26.6 22.5 16.4 10.5 5.6 13.9
Nagoya 4.5 5.2 8.7 14.4 18.9 22.7 26.4 27.8 24.1 18.1 12.2 7.0 15.8
Tokyo 5.2 5.7 8.7 13.9 18.2 21.4 25.0 26.4 22.8 17.5 12.1 7.6 15.4
Hiroshima 5.2 6.0 9.1 14.7 19.3 23.0 27.1 28.2 24.4 18.3 12.5 7.5 16.3
Osaka 6.0 6.3 9.4 15.1 19.7 23.5 27.4 28.8 25.0 19.0 13.6 8.6 16.9
Takamatsu 5.5 5.9 8.9 14.4 19.1 23.0 27.0 28.1 24.3 18.4 12.8 7.9 16.3
Fukuoka 6.6 7.4 10.4 15.1 19.4 23.0 27.2 28.1 24.4 19.2 13.8 8.9 17.0
Kagoshima 8.5 9.8 12.5 16.9 20.8 24.0 28.1 28.5 26.1 21.2 15.9 10.6 18.6
Naha 17.0 17.1 18.9 21.4 24.0 26.8 28.9 28.7 27.6 25.2 22.1 18.7 23.1


Daily Maximum temperature ( °C )

Station Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual
Sapporo -0.6 0.1 4.0 11.5 17.3 21.5 24.9 26.4 22.4 16.2 8.5 2.1 12.9
Sendai 5.3 5.9 9.2 15.0 19.4 22.3 25.7 27.9 24.4 19.4 13.7 8.4 16.4
Niigata 5.5 6.0 9.7 16.0 21.0 24.5 28.2 30.6 26.2 20.3 14.2 8.7 17.6
Nagoya 9.0 10.1 13.9 19.9 24.1 27.2 30.8 32.8 28.6 22.8 17.0 11.6 20.7
Tokyo 9.6 10.4 13.6 19.0 22.9 25.5 29.2 30.8 26.9 21.5 16.3 11.9 19.8
Hiroshima 9.7 10.6 14.0 19.7 24.1 27.2 30.8 32.5 29.0 23.4 17.4 12.3 20.9
Osaka 9.5 10.2 13.7 19.9 24.5 27.8 31.6 33.4 29.3 23.3 17.6 12.3 21.1
Takamatsu 9.4 10.1 13.4 19.5 24.1 27.3 31.2 32.4 28.4 22.8 17.2 12.1 20.7
Fukuoka 9.9 11.1 14.4 19.5 23.7 26.9 30.9 32.1 28.3 23.4 17.8 12.6 20.9
Kagoshima 12.8 14.3 17.0 21.6 25.2 27.6 31.9 32.5 30.1 25.4 20.3 15.3 22.8
Naha 19.5 19.8 21.7 24.1 26.7 29.4 31.8 31.5 30.4 27.9 24.6 21.2 25.7


Daily Minimum temperature ( °C )

Station Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual
Sapporo -7.0 -6.6 -2.9 3.2 8.3 12.9 17.3 19.1 14.2 7.5 1.3 -4.1 5.3
Sendai -1.7 -1.5 0.9 6.1 11.1 15.5 19.5 21.4 17.6 11.2 5.2 0.9 8.9
Niigata 0.2 0.1 2.3 7.3 12.7 17.6 21.7 23.4 19.2 12.8 7.0 2.7 10.6
Nagoya 0.8 1.1 4.2 9.6 14.5 19.0 23.0 24.3 20.7 14.1 8.1 3.1 11.9
Tokyo 0.9 1.7 4.4 9.4 14.0 18.0 21.8 23.0 19.7 14.2 8.3 3.5 11.6
Hiroshima 1.7 2.1 4.8 9.9 14.7 19.4 23.8 24.8 20.8 14.2 8.5 3.7 12.4
Osaka 2.8 2.9 5.6 10.7 15.6 20.0 24.3 25.4 21.7 15.5 9.9 5.1 13.3
Takamatsu 1.6 1.8 4.4 9.4 14.4 19.3 23.6 24.4 20.7 14.2 8.5 3.7 12.2
Fukuoka 3.5 4.1 6.7 11.2 15.6 19.9 24.3 25.0 21.3 15.4 10.2 5.6 13.6
Kagoshima 4.6 5.7 8.4 12.7 17.1 21.0 25.3 25.6 22.8 17.5 11.9 6.7 14.9
Naha 14.6 14.8 16.5 19.0 21.8 24.8 26.8 26.6 25.5 23.1 19.9 16.3 20.8


Precipitation  ( mm )

Station Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual
Sapporo 113.6 94.0 77.8 56.8 53.1 46.8 81.0 123.8 135.2 108.7 104.1 111.7 1106.5
Sendai 37.0 38.4 68.2 97.6 109.9 145.6 179.4 166.9 187.5 122.0 65.1 36.6 1254.1
Niigata 186.0 122.4 112.6 91.7 104.1 127.9 192.1 140.6 155.1 160.3 210.8 217.4 1821.0
Nagoya 48.4 65.6 121.8 124.8 156.5 201.0 203.6 126.3 234.4 128.3 79.7 45.0 1535.3
Tokyo 52.3 56.1 117.5 124.5 137.8 167.7 153.5 168.2 209.9 197.8 92.5 51.0 1528.8
Hiroshima 44.6 66.6 123.9 141.7 177.6 247.0 258.6 110.8 169.5 87.9 68.2 41.2 1537.6
Osaka 45.4 61.7 104.2 103.8 145.5 184.5 157.0 90.9 160.7 112.3 69.3 43.8 1279.0
Takamatsu 38.2 47.7 82.5 76.4 107.7 150.6 144.1 85.8 147.6 104.2 60.3 37.3 1082.3
Fukuoka 68.0 71.5 112.5 116.6 142.5 254.8 277.9 172.0 178.4 73.7 84.8 59.8 1612.3
Kagoshima 77.5 112.1 179.7 204.6 221.2 452.3 318.9 223.0 210.8 101.9 92.4 71.3 2265.7
Naha 107.0 119.7 161.4 165.7 231.6 247.2 141.4 240.5 260.5 152.9 110.2 102.8 2040.8


Relative Humidity  ( % )

Station Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual
Sapporo 70 69 66 62 66 72 76 75 71 67 67 69 69
Sendai 66 64 62 64 71 80 83 81 78 72 68 66 71
Niigata 72 71 67 65 69 74 77 73 73 71 71 72 71
Nagoya 64 61 59 60 65 71 74 70 71 68 66 65 66
Tokyo 52 53 56 62 69 75 77 73 75 68 65 56 65
Hiroshima 68 67 64 63 66 72 74 71 70 68 69 69 68
Osaka 61 60 59 59 62 68 70 66 67 65 64 62 64
Takamatsu 63 63 64 63 66 72 74 72 73 71 69 66 68
Fukuoka 63 63 65 65 68 74 75 72 73 67 67 64 68
Kagoshima 65 65 66 68 71 76 75 73 71 67 67 67 69
Naha 67 70 73 76 79 83 78 78 76 71 69 66 74


Sunshine duration  ( h )

Station Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual
Sapporo 92.5 104.0 146.6 176.5 198.4 187.8 164.9 171.0 160.5 152.3 100.0 85.9 1740.4
Sendai 148.1 151.8 177.0 188.5 185.2 133.8 119.5 144.4 121.2 148.6 139.6 138.6 1796.1
Niigata 58.2 78.6 133.2 169.8 202.1 168.5 160.1 211.1 162.8 140.1 89.9 60.5 1631.9
Nagoya 170.1 170.0 189.1 196.6 197.5 149.9 164.3 200.4 151.0 169.0 162.7 172.2 2091.6
Tokyo 184.5 165.8 163.1 176.9 167.8 125.4 146.4 169.0 120.9 131.0 147.9 178.0 1876.7
Hiroshima 137.2 139.7 169.0 190.1 206.2 161.4 179.5 211.2 165.3 181.8 151.6 149.4 2042.3
Osaka 142.6 135.4 159.5 188.6 194.3 156.2 182.1 216.9 156.7 163.9 148.5 151.6 1996.4
Takamatsu 141.2 141.6 168.2 192.5 203.3 165.8 195.0 225.2 159.6 169.3 145.2 148.6 2053.9
Fukuoka 102.1 121.0 149.8 181.6 194.6 149.4 173.5 202.1 162.8 177.1 136.3 116.7 1867.0
Kagoshima 132.7 135.1 148.8 167.5 174.2 121.8 190.9 206.2 176.7 186.7 155.2 149.8 1935.6
Naha 94.2 87.1 108.3 123.8 145.8 163.6 238.8 215.0 188.9 169.6 123.0 115.6 1774.0

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